Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Elements
A. Scope and Purpose
The development of this appendix involved first, defining specific qualification requirements in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities which will be referred to as job elements for purposes of this appendix; second, selecting those job elements which would make an effective qualification standard; third, identifying the level of difficulty and complexity of each job element; and fourth, providing questions to be asked.
The purpose of this appendix is to provide questions which applicants must address when seeking a position. The questions are designed to elicit information from applicants with regard to their experience, training, or education which may indicate possession of the job element by the applicants.
B. Positions Covered by this Appendix
In the Proficiency Requirements section of some qualification standards, the requirements are denoted with a "B" before the requirement number. This refers to a "B-element" in this appendix. For all such requirements, the questions as stated in this appendix must be used in rating applicants' qualifications.
C. Positions Not Covered by this Appendix
Many qualification standards do not have requirements which refer to the "B-elements." For these requirements, the questions contained in this appendix do not apply. For purposes of rating applicants' qualifications, applicants must address each requirement as it is stated in the qualification standard.
D. Positions with "Mixed" Requirements
Some qualification standards consist of requirements which refer to "B-elements," as well as other requirements. For those requirements which refer to "B-elements," applicants must address the appropriate questions contained in this appendix. For other requirements, applicants must address the requirement as it is stated in the qualification standard.
E. Rating Applicants' Qualifications
For the appropriate procedures to follow when rating applicants, see Handbook P-11, Section 525.2 and the instructions on the back of Form 1796, Qualification Rating.
F. Using this Appendix
The specific elements to be addressed by applicants are indicated by the "B-element" number. Make the questions for these elements available to the applicants. (See also Chapter 1 of this handbook, Sections 152.2 and 152.3 regarding applicants for "best qualified" and "senior qualified" positions.)
G. Guidelines for Evaluating Qualifications
1. Crediting Overall Experience The relevant aspects of an applicant's total education, training, and experience are rated for the extent to which they satisfy the requirements of the job element. Applicants are rated according to their capacity to perform, regardless of how the knowledge and/or skill was acquired.
2. Relating Experience to Qualification Requirements Whenever possible, use the assistance of an expert or supervisor who has knowledge of the position for which the applicant is being rated.
3. Emphasizing Quality The emphasis in evaluation is on quality and intensity of education, experience, and/or training. A lengthy experience record of low quality may prove only that an applicant lacks ability to learn or progress, or it may be the result of lack of opportunity. An applicant assigned duties of a high level who has performed poorly is not credited with ability to work at the high level. Quality of past performance is determined by careful analysis of the statements of the applicants, supervisor appraisals, etc.
H. Rating Form
Form 1796, Qualification Rating, must be used to rate an applicant's qualifications.
II. List of Elements and Questions
B-1. Ability to use and maintain tools and equipment.
Tell about your work or training which shows you can use hand and power tools including portable, electric, or pneumatic tools such as saws, grinders, drills, etc. Give examples of your work which required you to use tools. To what extent have you adjusted, repaired, and maintained tools and equipment?
B-2. Knowledge of __________________ . (Specify special equipment, machinery, structure, component parts, functions of a position.)
Tell how you gained and used this knowledge from the theoretical side (as in books), and from the practical side--installing, operating, adjusting, repairing, fabricating, inspecting, etc. Show types, models, components, etc. with which you can deal. What use have you made of parts manuals and catalogues? To what extent can you use this knowledge on the basis of your own judgment? If you ever used this knowledge for supervising or instructing helpers, juniors, mechanics, or others, what supervision or instruction did you give and to what kinds of workers?
B-3. Aility to assemble and disassemble mechanical equipment.
Tell about your experience and training in disassembling equipment, and in assembling-- positioning, aligning, adjusting, and securing systems, parts, or units. Give examples of such work, tolerances held, difficulties encountered, etc. Mention types of fastening you used, such as riveting, soldering, bolting, welding, etc. Tell about your ability to do reaming, counterboring, countersinking, chiseling, filing, etc.
B-4. Ability to work without immediate supervision.
Tell about experience you have had that shows you can work on the basis of your own judgment. Show the kinds of work you can do by yourself, without the help of a boss or supervisor. What responsibilities have you been given on jobs, in the Armed Forces, in your community, etc.? Give examples of the kinds of instructions your supervisor gives you, that is, examples of what your supervisor tells you to do when you start a task.
B-5. Ability to perform preventive maintenance.
Tell about your experience in maintaining mechanical equipment. Give examples from your work to show the kind of maintenance you have done. Tell about your ability to operate such equipment and your responsibility for keeping it in operating condition.
B-6. Ability to use reference materials and manuals relevant to the position.
What use have you made of technical manuals, bulletins, supply manuals, manufacturers' specifications, trade journals, catalogues, and handbooks? Describe the purpose. What did you look for--sizes, tolerances, working speeds, formulae, models, design, etc.? How much help do you need from your supervisor in choosing and interpreting the proper reference?
B-7. Ability to diagnose mechanical trouble.
Give examples of kinds of diagnosing you have done. Describe especially the more difficult problems. Show how much information you had to have of components, structures, and systems to do the diagnosing. Have you ever done diagnosing after other workers have not been able to find the source of trouble? If so, tell about it.
B-8. Ability to read drawings.
What training have you had in reading drawings? Tell about the types of equipment or objects on which you had to read and interpret such drawings. Tell about the kind of views represented, tolerances involved, details omitted, computations which you had to make, etc. Show the purposes of your drawings. Did you have to visualize a complete object from the drawings? If so, describe the purpose.
B-9. Safety in performance of duties common to the position.
What safety training have you had? What is your safety record? Describe any accident you have had in work, and any accidents outside of work in the last five years.
B-10. Ability to maintain records and prepare reports.
What experience have you had in maintaining accurate records? Give examples of the types of records kept and whether any automatic machines were used. What reports have you prepared from these records? How much help did you have from your supervisor in doing this?
B-11. Ability to perform effectively under the pressures of the position.
What examples of previous experiences can you provide in which you were working under time constraints, deadlines, etc.? Describe any such situations and how you performed in them.
B-12. Ability to maintain, overhaul, and repair electrical equipment.
What electrical equipment have you overhauled, repaired, or maintained? How much help did you have from your supervisor in doing this? What tools can you use in repairing electrical equipment?
B-13. Ability to plan, lay out, and set up work independently.
What experience have you had in planning, laying out, and setting up operations? Show size and scope of your work. Indicate the more difficult types of planning and layout and setup you have done.
B-14. Ability to interpret instructions, specifications, etc.
What kinds of instructions, specifications, contracts, or directives have you had to interpret? For what purpose? Include especially experience or training in interpreting new instructions or specifications concerning changes in operational procedures. How often did you have to interpret instructions? If you ever had to transmit or explain instructions to other employees, describe the kind of instructions and tell how you explained them.
B-15. Ability to paint.
Tell about the painting work you have done, including types of surfaces covered and whether you prepared the surface for painting. Did you mix paints? What paints have you used? Mention tools, brushes, spray guns, etc. you used.
B-16. Knowledge of __________________ shop practice. (Specify shop, as machine, etc.)
Tell how you gained your knowledge of shop practice adhering to standard practices in conserving materials, using correct parts, keeping exact tolerances, handling different situations, and "tricks of the trade."
B-17. Ability to perform acetylene and electric welding, metal cutting, and burning with a torch.
Tell about your experience and training in welding. Show whether you can do gas or electric welding, kinds of equipment you can use, and kinds of electrodes. Show kinds of metal, kinds of joints, positions, and tolerances. Give examples of work you have done using hand torches. Mention kinds of flamecutting machines you have used, if any, and examples of work. Tell about tolerances, kinds of metals. Tell about your use of jigs and fixtures to guide your work, and your work without jigs and fixtures. Tell about any experience you have had in flame spraying to build up metal surfaces or to spray protective coatings; and use of torch for heat treating; and for soldering and brazing. Tell about your training in safe practices with respect to gas burning experience. Describe any accidents you had with this equipment.
B-18. Ability to estimate time and materials.
Describe your experience in estimating time, materials, and cost. Describe the type of construction for which you prepared estimates, the complexity of the operations, and the purpose of the estimates. Tell about any new or prototype work for which you did estimating.
B-19. Ability to instruct.
Tell about your experience and training in instructing: teaching helpers or apprentices, training employees in the normal course of supervision, teaching shop courses, planning on-the-job training, etc. Have you prepared lesson plans, rated trainees in performance, followed a syllabus? Indicate the number and kind of workers trained and the methods of instructions you used. Did you instruct raw recruits or workers with some experience?
B-20. Ability to use intricate type measuring instruments (mechanical, electrical, electronic, as appropriate to line of work).
What mechanical, electrical, and electronic measuring instruments have you used? For what purpose? To what tolerances did you measure? Give examples of actual work you have done with instruments, especially the more difficult.
B-21. Ability to inspect in a "workshop" type situation.
What kinds of inspection have you done, of your own work or that of others? What mechanical or electrical instruments have you used to check work of yourself or others? Include the purpose of the inspection such as checking your own product, preventive maintenance, compliance, procurement, quality control, etc. What instructions, specifications, or other guidelines did you use? Indicate the extent and quality of inspection judgment which you exercised in determining sequence of inspection operations, parts to be inspected; interpreting specifications; accepting or rejecting items; recommending changes in production or inspection procedures, etc.
B-22. Ability to perform basic arithmetic computations.
How familiar are you with basic math? What courses have you completed in this area? What are some practical applications you have learned on the job?
B-23. Knowledge of metals and metallurgy.
Tell about experience or training that demonstrates you have knowledge of working properties and other characteristics of metals. Show which metals you have knowledge of. What work have you done that demands this knowledge? (Examples of work that demands this knowledge are heat treating, tempering, machining, bending, inspecting, etc.)
B-24. Ability to forge and forge-weld.
Tell about your experience and training in hand forging and machine forging. Show whether you have had to use knowledge of heat treating or pyrometers. Mention the equipment you used and the kind of forge work you did. If you supervised helpers or other workers in forging, tell the kind of supervision you gave.
B-25. Ability to set up in a machine shop.
Describe your experience and training in setup: replacing tools, aligning work and fixtures, setting feeds and speeds. Include the machines, kinds of tools, kinds of work done, and tolerances. Show the purpose of the setup--for your own operations, for operations of a shop, etc. Show whether the setups were usually about the same, or were constantly changing.
B-26. Ability to read electrical and electronic circuit diagrams, blueprints, and schematics.
What electrical circuit diagrams, electrical schematics, or other electrical drawings have you used? For what purpose? What kinds of circuits, electronic components, and equipment were involved?
B-27. Ability to diagnose electrical and electronic trouble.
Have you had to find out the reason why electrical equipment failed to operate properly? What kinds of equipment did you diagnose? How much did you have to know about components? Show the extent to which you had to understand the entire system. Tell extent of danger to equipment or personnel if incorrectly handled while diagnosing. Have you ever done diagnosing after other workers have not been able to find the source of trouble? If so, tell about it.
B-28. Knowledge of different relevant lines of work.
If you have familiarity or knowledge of other trades or lines of work than your main line of work, show the extent of your knowledge in each such area. How did you gain the knowledge? What work have you done in other lines? In what trades or kinds of work are you able to do at least the simple tasks, or help someone else do them? Show the kinds of repairing, assembling, installing, making, etc., that you can help do. Show how much you can do yourself.
B-29. Knowledge of materials commonly used in the particular position.
Tell what type of materials you have used in your trade or craft (plastics, chemicals, lumber, paints, metals, fasteners, etc.) and how you used them. What do you know of their working properties, temper, durability, and other characteristics? Show by your experience whether you are able to select the proper material for each job, according to purpose, trade standards, etc., and whether you are able to substitute material properly.
B-30. Ability to recognize where changes are required in preventive maintenance repair and adjustments and recommend proper changes for more efficient operation.
Tell about your experience in mechanical repair work which indicated the ability to recognize changes and recommend changes. Give examples from your work to show how you have accomplished this.
B-31. Ability to operate metalworking machines.
What experience have you had in operating automatic and nonautomatic machines? Show the machines you can operate, operations you have performed, cutting tools and special attachments you have used, and kinds of work you have produced with each kind of machine, especially the more difficult kinds.
B-32. Ability to cut sheet metal.
Give examples of sheet metal cutting work you have done. Mention kinds of patterns you have followed, types of shears, tolerances to which you have worked, etc. Mention work with saws, gas torches, notching machines, and nibbling machines. If you have cut irregular shapes and contours, inside circles, and other difficult work, tell about your experience.
B-33. Ability to braze and solder.
Give examples of the types of brazing and soldering work you have done including sweating. Describe the types of metal and joints; tools and equipment used; tolerances; and purposes for which you did the brazing and soldering.
B-34. Ability to assign work, establish work schedules, and utilize personnel efficiently.
Have you had the responsibility to assign work or establish schedules? What methods did you employ? Give examples of how you have assigned work to others or established work schedules.
B-35. Ability to lay out and develop patterns (including geometric projection and triangulation).
Tell about your training and experience in layout and pattern development. Give examples of your work in developing and transferring shapes, patterns, and outlines from drawings, sketches, blueprints, and actual objects. Mention the tools you used, complexity of the work, calculations involved, and type of a layout. What tolerances were involved?
B-36. Ability to use computing and trade mathematics (mechanical).
Tell about your training and experience in arithmetic (including decimals and fractions) and mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry). Give examples of the use you have made of these subjects in schooling, training, and work.
B-37. Ability to assemble machined parts.
Tell about your experience and training in assembling mechanical units--aligning, adjusting, and fastening. Tell about your skill in reaming, counterboring, countersinking, chiseling, filing, buffing, and riveting, or refer to another element where you have described these skills. To what tolerances have you worked?
B-38. Knowledge of maintenance management procedures.
Tell how you gained and used this knowledge from the theoretical side (as in books), and from the practical side. What use have you made of parts manuals and catalogues? To what extent can you use this knowledge on the basis of your own judgment? If you ever used this knowledge for supervising or instructing helpers, juniors, mechanics, or others, what supervision or instruction did you give and to what kinds of workers?
B-39. Ability to operate office machines such as calculator, adding machine, duplicating machine, or any other office equipment as appropriate to the position.
Tell about your work or training which shows you can use office machines appropriate to the position. Give examples of your work which required you to use these machines.
B-40. Ability to make threads (chasing) on lathe.
Tell about your experience and training in producing internal and external threads, using engine lathe with chasing or threading tool. Show how you got your knowledge of thread types, angles, and pitch, and what use you have made of this knowledge. For what classes of fit have you done chasing? Show your experience and training in checking product (with thread micrometer, 3-wire system, etc.).
B-41. Knowledge of electrical circuitry.
Tell about schooling, training, and experience that show you understand electrical circuits. What kinds of circuits, especially complicated kinds, have you worked with?
B-42. Knowledge of theory of electricity and electronics.
Tell about schooling, training, and experience that show your knowledge of the science of electricity: Ohm's and power laws, flow of current, units of measurement, theory of magnetism, action of and composition of batteries, motors, generators, symbols, voltage dividers, capacitors, reactors, transformers, resistors, insulators, conductors, AC and DC theory. Give dates of courses, course related mathematics. Tell about typical jobs you have done, where you had to use theory and related mathematics. If you ever taught or explained the theory, tell about it, including kinds of employees taught and subject matter.
B-43. Ability to work from ladders, scaffolds, and mechanical lift equipment.
Can you work from ladders and scaffolds? Give examples of work you have done that required ladders, scaffolds, or mechanical lifts.
B-44. Ability to personally resolve problems of a routine nature.
Tell about experiences you have had that show you can work on the basis of your own judgment. Show the kinds of work you can do by yourself without the help of a boss or supervisor. What responsibility have you been given on jobs?
B-45. Ability to understand and comply with written and oral instructions and give understandable information in oral and written form.
Give examples of how you have complied with written and verbal instructions (route slips, memos, etc.) and then given understandable information in verbal and/or written form. How often are you required to do this? What was the purpose?
B-46. Ability to analyze, explain, and apply laws, regulations, rulings, and procedures pertinent to the work to be performed.
Give examples of any work situations in which it was necessary for you to analyze or apply laws, regulations, rulings, or procedures. How often were you required to do this? What was the purpose?
B-47. Ability to use carpenter's tools.
What carpenter's tools have you used? For what purpose? Tell about the difficult jobs you have done with tools, including cutting and installing irregular shapes. If you have supervised or instructed others in the use of tools, tell about it. To what accuracy have you used tools?
B-48. Ability to handle weights and loads, beyond "normal" type functions of a position.
Can you carry loads? Give examples of the heaviest loads you have handled. Tell about any experience you have had in which you were regularly required to lift and move heavy or bulky objects.
B-49. Ability to install electrical equipment and wiring.
Describe the kinds of electrical installation you have done. What kinds of instructions did you receive? What kinds of electrical circuits, if any, have you had to plan out on your own? For what were they to be used?
B-50. Ability to perform electrical computations.
Tell about your training and experience in use of shop mathematics and electrical and other formulas. If you have taught others to use them, when, where, and why did you do so?
B-51. Knowledge of rigging and roping techniques.
What experience or training have you had in handling roping and rigging? Tell about your work in handling rope such as hoist rope, shackles, babbits, seizing, etc. Tell about your knowledge of rope capacity and size, tools required, materials, etc. Mention your work in planning, layout, inspecting, or assigning work and materials to workers on rope or rigging jobs.
B-52. Ability to use meters and test equipment (electronic).
Tell about your ability to use electrical and electronic instruments such as voltmeters, ohmmeters, oscilloscopes, synchroscopes, etc., and other precision instruments such as micrometers. Give examples from your work or training to show that you can use such instruments. Show the exactness of use required, and mention any standards of accuracy you employed.
B-53. Ability to work with others.
Tell about any training or experience in working or outside contacts that applies to your ability to deal tactfully with other people and gain their cooperation in conference, in work situations, in enforcing rules or policy, in giving instructions, in settling disputes, etc.
B-54. Ability to schedule work, either materials or people.
What experience have you had in preparing detailed work orders for a mechanical force? Did you plan work schedules? What work have you done that demands this type of experience? Show the kind and complexity of the operations. How much help did you need from your supervisor in performing these duties?
B-55. Ability to schedule and dispatch.
Tell about your experience in assigning employees to motor vehicle positions, including the scheduling or improved utilization of such employees and vehicles. Did you develop any of these schedules or make any recommended improvements that were adopted? This experience may have been obtained on jobs or in the military service.
B-56. Ability to maintain and erect varied masonry.
What experience have you had in making repairs to stairs, floors, walks, tables, and counters? Show your experience with granite, marble, tile, terrazzo, and stone. Tell about your experience in erecting new masonry.
B-57. Ability to cut, trim, face, and set masonry material.
Tell about your experience in cutting, trimming, facing, and setting material; replacing broken or chipped pieces; and pointing open joints. Tell about your experience in refinishing surfaces and removing stains. Tell about your experience in repairing defects in terrazzo.
B-58. Ability to deal with the public in a polite, courteous, and professional manner.
Tell about your training or experience in postal or outside work in dealing with people which indicates your ability to be polite and courteous. Are you tactful and diplomatic in dealing with others? How helpful are you with strangers or your fellow employees? Are you considerate and sympathetic to the problems of others?
B-59. Ability to maintain a financial credit accurately.
What experience have you had in receiving and disbursing cash or items of value? Have you maintained or had training in financial records or reports? Examples of your ability to account for monetary funds may include but is not limited to present or past employment, volunteer work, or related school or special training.